Design learning activities that promote student engagement.
As it is, if students feel more like spectators of the course, if their main activity is to listen to a teacher transmit content in a synchronous course or simply to read online content in an asynchronous course, it is likely that their intrinsic motivation will disappear after a couple of sessions.
In addition, whatever promotes active involvement at the beginning of the semester may no longer be as effective by the end. The type of activities assigned should thus change in relation to the progression in the competencies of online learners, in such a way so as to renew their engagement at each stage of the course.
Evidently, if the group is quite heterogeneous at the level of pre-requisite competencies, it becomes that much more difficult for the course designer to suggest engaging activities for everyone.